<body> Public Ad Campaign: August 2010
This blog is a resource for ad takeover artists and information about contemporary advertising issues in public space. If you have content you would like to share, please send us an email.

Monday, August 30, 2010

Get Ready for Ads in Books

VIA The Wall Street Journal

For those who think this too radical a notion, consider the overwhelming product placement in movies, music videos and video games.


With e-reader prices dropping like a stone and major tech players jumping into the book retail business, what room is left for publishers' profits? The surprising answer: ads. They're coming soon to a book near you. [More Here]

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Saturday, August 28, 2010

TOSAT-Website Up and General Thoughts

It has been a week since the TOSAT project happened, the website is up, and I figure it time to write my thoughts on the whole thing. First off, this was really a test to see if something of this scale could be done in a city away from home, and the result is a resounding yes. While things went smoothly-no arrests and a one hundred percent success rate in getting work up-it became abundantly clear that this would not have happened without the incredible help of several individuals who did all of the initial groundwork months before the action went down. They are in no particular order, PosterChild, Sean Martindale, Martin Reis, and Vanessa at the DuSpa Collective. As well, without the 60 plus artists that donated work for this production, TOSAT would not have happened. I want to make it clear that submitting work for this project is an act of beneficent citizenship and all of the participants should be commended for supporting this type of action which does more for the city of Toronto than it does for any personal interests they might have.

That said, planning for this Toronto action began with the last NYSAT project. Upon completion in NY, I was immediately interested in taking this model to other cities. I was duly impressed with the Toronto contingent of NYSAT which took a 13 hour bus ride all the way to NY to be a part of the action. Surely if they were willing to make that trek, their dedication to this kind of public space reform was profound, and they could be counted on to take the planning of TOSAT seriously. After many email communications it was decided that Pattison's Core Media Pillars would provide the right venue for a submission based project. Standard sizes and a dense network in Toronto's downtown core made them a perfect target. Martin Reis took the bull by the horns and went out to photograph every location he could find, giving us a detailed map from which to plan both the numbers of pieces we could handle, as well as how our teams could most efficiently hit a large number of locations in the shortest amount of time.
Next an email went out to our mailing list and we quickly reached 85 artists who were willing to submit work for TOSAT. This list included artists and activists alike, but partially because of the submission based aspect of the project, it seemed many more street artists and gallery artists were sending work. I was extremely happy about this fact for a number of reasons. For one it meant that the project was growing and interest was expanding beyond the hard core public space activists. It also meant that the "quality" (for lack of a better word) of the submissions would be raised. While these street advertising projects are about creating a large enough event that the public begins to questions advertising's use of public space, often critics will harp on the fact that much of the work is less than MoMA quality. Of course these critics fail to acknowledge that many of these works are either done under extreme time constraints and risk of arrest, or that artists are unwilling to polish a work knowing that the piece will quickly be removed, likely ending up in the garbage. Either way, the easier submissions are to look at, the less ammo the critics have and that can only help our cause.
While much of the project was planned before hand, I arrived in Toronto a week before the action to take care of final issues. My first task was to collect the works which had been trickling into Toronto over the last month. After counting the packages that had been received, there were only 45 artists who had sent in work, totaling only 70 some pieces. While I was under the expectation we would have 85 participants, I was obviously worried that the project would not have the support it needed to create a serious reaction. I sent out an email to those whose work I had not received to figure out what was going on. Responses varied and included some whose work had been returned because of customs fees which our receiver could not afford to pay (something we have learned can be escaped by warning participants to declare their works value to be less than 20 dollars) others had tracked packages which were still en route having been held up by customs or other delivery issues, and lastly about 15 artists had just plain flaked out. While the last response is typical of a project like this, it is also very difficult to deal with as the scope of the project and planning done before hand is dependent on people coming through on their obligations. In the end everything worked out and much of the work which was on its way when I first counted arrived without incident.
Now knowing exactly how much work we were in possession of, the serious planning could take place. I sat down with Vanessa and figured out just how many installers/activists we would need. DuSpa, being a collective that includes an incredible roster of progressive and caring individuals came through in spades, providing 16 participants to install the daytime pillar action and a similar number for the night time billboard action. It was decided that the "Ground" teams (handling the pillar locations) would depart at 5pm to insure daylight protest aspects of the project as well as insure photographs could be taken after installation in the event that the works were removed the next morning. The "Sky" teams would install under the cover of darkness, leaving our hideout at midnight with the expectation of a 4am return.
As we gathered at 3pm on Sunday, the day of the project, it was still pouring rain outside. Journalists, videographers and installers waited impatiently knowing installation could not begin until the rain stopped as many of the pieces were done on paper. Meanwhile, time was passed going over legal issues, briefing installers on how to enter the pillars and generally milling about anxiously. By 4pm the rain had stopped and by five it looked like the night would stay clear. We set out in six teams to blanket 41 pillars in less than 2 hours. While the first aspect of the project took place with little incident, it should be noted that initial scouting had turned up locations that had subsequently been removed by the time our action took place and some quick thinking was done by teams who found a few locations no longer existed. Again these issues will be dealt with in the next projects.
After removing over 160 ads, leaving PSA's in place, and installing over 90 pieces of artwork, participants returned exuberant and ready for the Sky team action. This aspect of the project was broken down into two teams. One containing the DuSpa contingent and the other Posterchild, Sean Martindale and myself. Each of our objectives was to whitewash 10 billboards in downtown Toronto, add some "art" and return home safely. While I was not on the DuSpa side of things I cannot attest to the ease of their outing but our team ran into no trouble at all. We painted out advertising with impunity for 3 hours in front of pedestrians, night shift workers, and transit employees until the very end. At our last location, ecstatic at our progress, we decided to end with a few photo ops. Having successfully painted the date of the project and a total of nine billboards we began to pack our truck.
Out of the corner of my eye, as I peeled a Pattison sticker from the side of our vehicle, I saw flashing lights. Knowing the police would box us in I continued at my task. Once they had pulled in behind our truck, they exited the car. At this point I looked over and said hello. The officer driving asked me to come over to him which I was already in the process of doing, saying something to the affect of "How you doing tonight?" He then looked me up and down, most likely because I was covered head to toe in paint drippings, and asked "Did you paint that billboard?" referring to the billboard painted with a giant 20 not 30 feet from our truck. Knowing I could not say no believably, I nonchalantly answered "Yes." He followed "You work for Pattison?" My truck said Pattison on the side so my only answer was again "Yes." He then looked me up and down slowly, I assume trying to find a reason to doubt me at which point he asked again quizzically. "You work for Patisson?" He clearly was not sure if he should believe me. It was at this point that I stupidly or maybe smartly responded, "Yeah we are just wrapping up our night, did a few of these in the neighborhood."
I do not suggest ever giving cops any more information than they ask for but in this situation it seemed to work in my favor. I seemed to truly believe that I was doing what I was supposed to be doing and I think it rubbed off. Without any hesitation I had told him what he didn't expect to hear, and offered more information unsolicited. It was too real and he motioned to his partner to get back in the car. Their engine started and they quickly left. Needless to say we jumped in the back of our vehicle and drove as far away from that area as we could, returning to our hideout around 4am.
All in all the project was a complete success and I hope everyone involved felt the same way. The media in Toronto reported about the project widely and we hope that some of the issues that Torontonian's wanted raised will be reinvigorated by this action. Mainly, how the billboard by-law will play out in the coming months. Working in another city was a definite challenge. My tendencies to over control everything had to be let go and I was happily surprised with the results the true magicians behind this project ended up pulling off. While there are small details which will help us plan other cities more thoroughly, prevent us from loosing work, dropping participants, live mapping locations, etc. it was all about having a network of people in place willing to do some serious work. As much as we talk about the public space/anti-advertising activism world growing, this was truly an example of an international effort. Many of the participants had never met one another and had come together on faith and only our principles as common ground. Indeed a community of people exists floating around this type of activism and when that community hits, more people are brought into the fold, or at least into the conversation.
While this may be only a small step or too much work for so little return, I continue to believe that these projects are an important marriage of the art and activist world. With over half the world's population now residing in major metropolitan cities, the means of representation are becoming an ever important issue for our public spaces. If we let this issue go and do nothing about it we may find ourselves living in environments in which we have no say at all, where the normal array of visual elements becomes so privatized that questioning it may not even be a question at all. In fact we might already be there. If we choose to disobey current property laws and throw into question current tendencies to monetize and thus privatize our public experiences, we might just find our public spaces are missing a public element they might desperately need. And if this is a wild goose chase, citizens barking up the wrong tree in an effort to gain a better understanding of their relationship to their public environment and thus the society around them, then what have we lost?
In the end all the citizens of our cities have only to gain from non-violent civil disobedience like this. Ad revenues are quickly absorbed into multi-billion dollar budgets and our cities, if only for a moment, question something they pay little attention to otherwise. If anything these moments of contemplation are enough for me to continue forward but ultimately one would hope that opinions will begin to develop, seeds of ideas which will slowly alter the way we think about our public spaces, the people around us and the cities we want to live in.

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Tuesday, August 24, 2010

Locals Wage War On "Mafia War" Creators Over Illegal Ad

First this mess was reported in San Francisco and now it has hit the east coast. Truthfully I don't mind this type of intervention in public space, it just grinds my gears when I lean down and realize I've been asked to play Mafia Wars.
Of course the people behind the time-suck games on Facebook are responsible for offline trash as well. Zynga, the developer of Mafia Wars and Farmville, went the illegal route for their latest marketing campaign, sticking fake dollar bills to the sidewalks of both New York and San Francisco. Yesterday NYC the Blog called attention to their tactics—which have been getting criticized by local blogs all week—noting it's unlawful to deface any street or sidewalk with printed matter, including advertisements. [More Here]

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On Corporate Graffiti by Sarah Berman

I'm sitting in the Toronto airport on my way back home from the latest large scale takeover project. While I compile the imagery from TOSAT for the upcoming website release, I figured a recently finished short doc on the last NYSAT project is a fitting way to fill expectations. Sarah Berman came all the way from Vancouver to shoot this piece and I am honored PublicAdCampaign was deemed worthy of her time. I would like to personally thank everyone involved in these large scale interventions, including John Pearson and Adda Birnir who both make appearances in this wonderful piece.

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Poster Boy Upgrades Book Launch, Lawyer

I havent spoken to PosterBoy in a little while but look forward to seeing him at this upcoming event. K.A.R.A.T.E. is a fantastic initiative I hope everyone who reads this site will rally behind.
The underground ad altering artist known as Poster Boy is using his time out of jail for the greater good…of other vandals. He will kick off a legal defense fund for artists” at the launch party for his book: The War of Art. Kids Are Rallying Against The Empire (K.A.R.A.T.E.) aims to assist those in fighting “art-related crimes conceived in public space.” Also, prosecutors beware, PB has a new lawyer: Ron Kuby!

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Toronto Street Advertising Takeover A Success

After the success of the NYSAT projects, it was only fitting we bring our very own brand of civil protest to another city. On August 22nd PublicAdCampaign joined forces with a group of incredible artists and activists to bring you the latest large scale non-violent civil disobedience project in Toronto. With over 90 pieces of art and public communications installed, zero arrests, and an advertising company unable to deal with the works removal, TOSAT has been a complete success. Please stay tuned for the website launch within the next few days, hopefully sooner. The only question that remains is which city will be next?

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Tuesday, August 17, 2010

Living Walls-Wrap Up

The recently finished Living Walls conference in Atlanta far surpassed my expectations. In an effort to highlight street art and urban art projects' affect on our communities and public environments, Blacki and Monica's attack was threefold. A week before the conference began, incredible artists such as RIPO, Remed, Gaia, Doodles, Swampy, and many more began production on an unprecedented number of public murals around the Atlanta area. Peaking the interest of the public at large, these murals prefaced a 8 hour long conference at the Georgia Tech Architecture department. Panel discussions focused on gentrification, urban gardening and transportation issues, while artists and thinkers spoke about specific projects as well as the larger goals of our Urban Art interventions. While I ended up being the final speaker, the highlights for me included Jason Eppink's talk on rapid prototyping as a model for street art actions, and Jeff Ferrel's succinct description of why issues of representation are now the preeminent battleground in our major metropolitan environments. Jeff Has been a hero of mine ever since I read Crimes of Style but I now feel I can officially call him a friend as I spent several incredibly drunk hours on the roof where we were staying, belting out protest songs as him and Everyman wailed on an acoustic guitar. It was a truly incredible experience I will never forget. Along with the two above noted aspects of the living walls conference, Blacki and Monica held a group show at the alternative and fiercely progressive Eyedrum arts space. Here a group of nearly one thousand Atlanta residents gathered to take in the work as well as 10 rapid paced Pechacuha style presentations which were met with incredible enthusiasm. For more information, read Jessica Blankenship's article in Creative Loafing.

While I was mainly at the Living Walls conference to talk, I also included a piece from the Expanding Rituals series in the gallery show. Along with this, I got excited over the prolific mural production and thought it appropriate that while artists were out doing legal walls, I would bring my own personal touch to a single location in the city. I spent the first day I arrived at the corner of Krog and Edgewood, whitewashing the entire corner building, including the billboard attached. While it was nearly a hundred degrees out, rather than question if I was supposed to be painting this property, I think people felt bad for me. I returned towards sundown, allowing the heat to dissipate, to paint the simple design. Nearly 2/3rd of the way through and after spending several hours at the location, a van pulled up behind me. An older man jumped out, clearly upset, questioning whether or not Kenny knew about what I was doing. Assuming Kenny was the landlord I of course responded yes. The man asked for my ID, which I began to take out, willing to comply as truthfully I thought what I had done was at least a slight improvement and even probably okay with kenny, despite its unauthorized nature. As I walked towards him, he seemed upset with the fact that I was relatively un-phased and he threw his hand up as he turned around, leaving me with "fuck it! the cops are on their way anyways." While I am all about conversation with public individuals, cops don't usually engage me in a dialogue. I waited for a while across the street after packing up my materials. As I stood watch, a man pulled up to the stop light on the corner. He turned to me and asked what that was, pointing to the wall I had been working on. I responded that it was a mural. He in turn told me that he liked it and asked me if I knew why. I told him I did not and he said because it wasn't graffiti, pointing to the wall opposite mine, riddled with graf. I took this as a positive sign and hoped Kenny would feel the same way, possibly even leaving the wall up. Realizing that in all likelihood, the police were not on their way, I returned to finish the wall.

Speaking to OX before the conference, I had promised I would put up his work since he would not be able to fly in from France. Being a fellow ad takeover junky that I had worked with before in NY, I was only too happy to help out. The above images were posted over a series of two days.
The last and possibly most interesting thing that happened to me while I was in Atlanta happened the last night before I left. Around 11pm I went out to watch RIPO and Remed work on a legal wall. I sat, enjoying their process, sipping a beer when a grey pickup truck pulled into the parking lot adjacent to the wall. A man hopped out and seemed to wave to the two artists as he walked towards me. Thinking nothing of it, I offered my name, "I'm Jordan." His response, "I know." Turns out this was a freelance wildposter working for NPA. According to him, he had gotten wind I would be coming to town and had been patrolling the area waiting to catch me in the act of reclaiming the space he had covered with his illegal postering. I explained to him that I had no intention of doing so and I was mainly at the conference to talk. We had a lengthy conversation about the NYSAT actions, the resulting end of NPA, its conversion to Contest Promotions, the jail time served by project participants and the loss of many NPA jobs. He was clearly trying to feel me out and after realizing I was not some raging lunatic, hellbent on destroying his life, our conversation became more amiable. In the end he offered me a bucket of wheatpaste to put up OX's work on the condition I did not use it to take out any of his work. I agreed and he drove off with his wife in the car, both of us happy to have met one another.
While this encounter was not all that unusual for me, it did reinforce the fact that our actions had drawn national attention from NPA. It also made me realize that my movement and work was being followed closely, something I suspected, but have not seen directly until now.
All in all the conference was a fantastic experience, drawing a community of artists and activists together, sparking intense debates about the process of public appropriation of private property whose walls directly affected the public psyche. It proved without a doubt that the actions of few can have deeper more interesting consequences than we could ever imagine. It has emboldened my crusade to challenge notions of public curation and enlivened my sense of duty. I look forward to continuing this project for years to come in an effort to create more widespread physical and mental change amongst my peers and the public at large.

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Friday, August 13, 2010

Living Walls Conference-Atlanta

This thursday I will be flying down to Atlanta for the Living Walls Conference. I am very excited to have this opportunity to speak about public space and its interaction with street art and advertising amidst an incredible group of my peers. Blacki and Monica have pieced together an impressive set of artists, many of whom defy conventional notions of graffiti and street art. If you are in Atlanta, come out to Eyedrum this evening for what will surely be an incredible evening.

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“But Advertising is Free Speech…”

Mr. Lambert of the Anti-Advertising Agency argues against the notion that Advertising is a form of free speech...
“But Advertising is protected as Free Speech…” I hear this every once in a while. The problem is that advertising isn’t free speech, in more ways than one.

1. It’s far from free. You can go to any public place and say whatever you want. And anyone else can too. In the United States we’re pretty much covered on that. But you can’t advertise whatever you want in public space. Financially it’s out of reach. It takes an unreasonable amount of money to communicate your message through advertising that makes it inaccessible to all but a few citizens. Try to work outside the advertising spaces and you become a vandal. Ultimately, advertising is for private, business interests, not the public. [More Here]

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Sunday, August 8, 2010

Blade Runner II? Developer Wants To Wrap Downtown Towers With Huge Electronic Advertisments

As per usual, Ban Billboard Blight has some fantastic content. While outdoor advertising for a long time relied on size and repetition to get your attention, new focus on your specific consumer needs will draw you ever closer to the brink of dilution.
Almost everyone’s either seen or heard about the 2002 film “Minority Report” with its scene of Tom Cruise walking past digital advertising signs that call out to him by name and deliver sales pitches for such things as Guinness beer, Lexus, and a trip to an island paradise. And almost everyone’s read or knows about “1984,” George Orwell’s novel of a dystopian future that spawned the iconic phrase, “Big Brother is Watching You.” Now, thanks to tiny chips embedded in millions of credit cards and cell phones, those sci-fi fantasies may soon become a reality. [More Here]

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Peeking Behind the Veil: Princess Hijab

Janelle Grace has a wonderful interview with Princess Hijab on HyperAllergic. I highly suggest taking a look.
I sit down with my laptop in a quiet, central Brooklyn café, not far from Prospect Park on a slightly overcast day in August to interview the mysterious Parisian street artist Princess Hijab. I order a San Pellegrino with lime; she abstains from any snacks or beverages. Despite the time difference from France, she’s alert and ready to engage with me. I go into the interview knowing how she guards her anonymity, and the concrete details of her identity remain elusive – this is an email interview after all. [More Here]

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Thursday, August 5, 2010

From the CDC: New Billboard Alterations Salute Israel Following Raid on Gaza Flotilla

As per usual, the Anti Advertising Agency has its finger on the pulse, reporting on this recent billboard takeover in San Francisco. More [HERE]

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Tuesday, August 3, 2010

Vinchen Speaks About Why They Do It, Then They Did It

This images comes to us from Wooster Collective. While this is not an ad takeover, I have always been a fan of Vinchen's work and this piece talks directly about some of the motivations behind unauthorized use of public space for public expression that I like to champion on this site. Although Vinchen's aren't the only reasons people write on walls, the piece accepts the fact that the act of illegally writing in public might be a symptom of a need, or a feeling which compels the author to go out an commit a criminal act in order to express ones self. Something commercial media pays for and in doing so monetizes the spaces the public would put its own thoughts, thus further criminalizing their actions.

This cell phone video was taken by an old friend, Shandi Sullivan, the other night after a long karaoke session. While it may not be academically viable, I think it is a wonderful addition to Vinchen's piece in that it captures the potential for public interaction and communication that can be found around the act of marking ones public space. According to Shandi, after leaving karaoke late on Sunday night, her and a friend passed by one of the empty white NPA street level billboards that are still around NYC after NPA was forced to close shop and reopen as Contest Promotions in NYC. In their state of Euphoria, they decided to draw on this messaging board. Within minutes I am told that they were approached by another couple that wanted in on the action. It took some convincing on Shandi's part but the couple accepted that they were "allowed" to draw on this empty white board. In particular the girl in this video was unsure if she was allowed to draw in public, even if it was on an empty white board. Eventually she broke down and then furiously began to enjoy the act of marking in public space. Minutes later a passing skateboarder was called into the scene and he too was convinced that it was okay for him to draw at this location, outlining himself and his skateboard on the now very public space.

While this amateur, drunk interaction may be less than what we want to see as public expression in public space, the potential is obvious. The act of marking this board brought 5 strangers together in a public space, conversations were had, and ultimately a sense of public was built, however small. Expand this notion away from this late night rendezvous and you can picture messaging boards all over the city, ripe for moments of community, expression and public interaction. How grand would our sidewalks be if all of those NPA boards went white and became focuses of this kind of community behavior. When I argue against outdoor advertising in public space it is twofold. For one I abhor the manipulative and shallow nature of commercial messages, but as well I am saddened by the missed opportunities for a better use of our shared environment.

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Event Cancelled Advertising Takeover

When taking over outdoor advertising, I always prefer it to disappear under activist projects and artwork. With that in mind, the Event Cancelled advertising takeover, by trying to undermine the advertisings goal, speaks to the general dissatisfaction with outdoor commercial media. While it may provide no alternative use for that space, I think the point is well made. Get out!!!! you can see more [Here]

This project reminds me of another project...Truth In Advertising

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Sunday, August 1, 2010

Abandoned Paris

Over in Paris, like in New York, there are many abandoned subway stations. A friend of mine spends a good amount of time exploring these hidden treasures and recently sent us this picture. According to him this station is abandoned, although not abandoned enough for them to paint the framed advertising spaces white. Before commercial copy could go up for the non-existent audience, artwork was created inside the frames to brighten the day of any ghosts or wayward travelers.

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Billboards or Pop Up Stores-It's All The Same

Our friend over at Improv Anywhere, Charlie Todd, recently sent us this email describing a location at 8th avenue and 28th street.


I took a couple of photos for you because I thought you'd be interested in this development (no worries if you aren't.)

On the corner of 8th Avenue and 28th Street sits a luxury condo building called The Onyx that was built a few years back. The large retail space on its ground level has sat empty since it was built. If you count its lengthy construction period that was fraught with delays, the space has been empty for about four years. In May of this year, the space was converted into an art gallery to showcase the work of Matthew James, an artist who had a connection to the building as he designed a sculpture that sits in its lobby. Here's a link to a description of the show: http://www.artslant.com/ny/events/show/102897-supreme-creation

I was excited to see the space being used in this way. When the show ended, the space went back to being empty for a few weeks until the landlord decided to cover it with advertising promoting Canadian tourism. At first, it was just print advertising (located on the inside of the glass and impossible for neighborhood vigilantes to deface or remove.) Then they added a large video screen that glares at night. The screen shows images of the same Canadian tourism campaign. It's a pretty bright eyesore. Then came the next addition, which is something I haven't seen before at a location like this: a street team. In the middle of the day, uniformed employees stand in front of the building and pass out Canadian tourism flyers and attempt to talk to people on the street.

So a building that was quiet and empty for four years now has full in-window advertising, a video monitor, and actual humans trying to stop you and get your attention on the street.
With NYC laws regulating outdoor advertising these days, companies are becoming very savvy in their promotion of product. While a billboard at this location would incur the wrath of the DOB, it seems a pop-up shop like the Canadian tourist board, or this locations most recent incarnation as a Mastercard pop-up, are free to invade your public space with little recourse from the city or the public. In fact in my response to Charlie I questioned this newest incarnation of street advertising as a possibly viable way in which to bring commercial media to the streets of NY. Charlie's response, quite fittingly, explained that in his opinion a shop, or pop-up store must offer some goods or service in order to not qualify as advertising. I would tend to agree, although promotional information for a tourist board does begin to fall under the category of a service as the only real product they are pushing is in fact information about Canada and its splendors, indeed what was being offered by the street teams and pop-up shop.

What is also interesting to me is the larger question of who we let use our public space and how. As of now, private property laws permit landlords to sell their spaces to the highest bidder. In the case of a viable business, we might not be happy with the landlords choice but I dare say we really have a choice as a public. To me this should not be the case with outdoor advertising which makes no attempt to provide anything for the neighborhood and instead demands the attention and desires of the public at large. Those private property owners in my opinion should be beholden to the public when contracting commercial media to use their spaces. Like the walls of our cities, which are in fact private property, ground floor spaces have a very real affect on the public environment and therefore the public psyche. We might as a society be better off if we rethink our notion of public vs private and rethink private property owners rights when using their property in ways which directly influence the health of our communities.

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      Sharon Zukin
      The Cultures of Cities

      Miriam Greenberg
      Branding New York

      Naomi Klein
      No Logo

      Kalle Lasn
      Culture Jam

      Stuart Ewen
      Captains of Consciousness

      Stuart Ewen
      All Consuming Images

      Stuart & Elizabeth Ewen
      Channels of Desire

      Jeff Ferrell
      Crimes of Style

      Jeff Ferrell
      Tearing Down the Streets

      John Berger
      Ways of Seeing

      Joe Austin
      Taking the Train

      Rosalyn Deutsche
      Evictions art + spatial politics

      Jane Jacobs
      Death+Life of American Cities